Domain hacks with unusual Unicode characters

Unicode contains a range of symbols which don't get much use. For example, there are separate symbols for TradeMark - ™, Service Mark - ℠, and Prescriptions - ℞.

Nestling among the "Letterlike Symbols" are two curious entries. Both of these are single characters:

What's interesting is both .tel and .no are Top-Level-Domains (TLD) on the Domain Name System (DNS).

So my contact site - - can be written as - https://edent.℡/

And the Norwegian domain name registry NORID can be accessed at https://www.norid.№/

Copy and paste those links - they work in any browser!

Is this limited to TLDs?

No! This works ANYWHERE in a domain name. Copy and paste these examples:

  • Script https://ℰ𝒳𝒜ℳ𝓟ℒℰ.𝒞𝓞ℳ/
  • Math Bold https://𝐞𝐱𝐚𝐦𝐩𝐥𝐞.𝐜𝐨𝐦/
  • Fraktur https://𝖊𝖝𝖆𝖒𝖕𝖑𝖊.𝖈𝖔𝖒/
  • Math bold italic https://𝒆𝒙𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆.𝒄𝒐𝒎/
  • Math bold script https://𝓮𝔁𝓪𝓶𝓹𝓵𝓮.𝓬𝓸𝓶/
  • Double struck https://𝕖𝕩𝕒𝕞𝕡𝕝𝕖.𝕔𝕠𝕞/
  • Monospace https://𝚎𝚡𝚊𝚖𝚙𝚕𝚎.𝚌𝚘𝚖/
  • Super script https://ᵉˣᵃᵐᵖˡᵉ.ᶜᵒᵐ/
  • Sub script https://ₑₓₐₘₚₗₑ.cₒₘ/ NB not all characters supported
  • Math sans bold https://𝗲𝘅𝗮𝗺𝗽𝗹𝗲.𝗰𝗼𝗺/
  • Math sans bold italic https://𝙚𝙭𝙖𝙢𝙥𝙡𝙚.𝙘𝙤𝙢/
  • Math sans italic https://𝘦𝘹𝘢𝘮𝘱𝘭𝘦.𝘤𝘰𝘮/
  • Math Squared https://🄴🅇🄰🄼🄿🄻🄴.🄲🄾🄼/ NB the dot must not be squared
  • Circled https://ⓔⓧⓐⓜⓟⓛⓔ.ⓒⓞⓜ/ NB the dot must not be circled

There are a whole bunch more miscellaneous characters you can use:

How does this work?

Magic! Which is to say, I think it is the browser doing the conversion. DNS Servers don't successfully reply to queries about .℡ domains.

The browser sees the .℡ and then follows the IDNA2008 process listed in RFC5895 to normalise it:

map characters to the "Simple_Lowercase_Mapping" property (the fourteenth column) in <>, if any.

The ℡ entry is:

2121;TELEPHONE SIGN;So;0;ON;<compat> 0054 0045 004C;;;;N;T E L SYMBOL;;;;

U+0054 is T, U+0045 is E, U+004C is L.

You can test this in Python using:

python -c 'import sys;print sys.argv[1].decode("utf-8").encode("idna")' "℡"

Does this work?

Yes! I asked people on Twitter whether they could access my website using a .℡ - and it appeared to work on every modern browser and operating system.

It even works on command line tools like wget and curl.

It does fail in some circumstances:

What are the limitations?

Two main ones:

  • Sites like Twitter and Facebook don't recognise it as a valid URl and refuse to auto link it.
  • Some command line tools like dig and host don't understand it
dig edent.℡

; <<>> DiG 9.10.6 <<>> edent.℡
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NXDOMAIN, id: 55282

Is this useful?

Obviously yes. This may be the most important discovery of the decade. You get cool looking URls and get to save a couple of characters on specific domains, at the minor expense of working inconsistently.

It could also be used for evading URl filters.

Every modern browser supports these "fancy" domain names - but most websites won't automatically link to them. So sharing on Facebook doesn't work.

Where can it be used?

Here are the single characters which can be normalised down to a valid TLD. They're mostly country codes, but there are a few interesting exceptions:

  • - US Military
  • - .tel registry
  • - Norway
  • - Australia
  • - Dominica
  • - Panama
  • - Namibia
  • - Morocco
  • - French Polynesia
  • - Norfolk Island
  • - Kyrgyzstan
  • - Mali
  • - Federated States of Micronesia
  • - Finland
  • - Myanmar
  • - Cameroon
  • & - Comoros
  • - Palestine
  • - Montserrat
  • & - Republic of Maldives.
  • - Palau
  • & - Malawi
  • - Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • - Democratic Republic of Congo
  • - Guyana
  • - Philippines
  • - Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • - Puerto Rico
  • - Suriname
  • - El Salvador
  • - San Marino
  • - Turkmenistan
  • & - São Tomé and Príncipe
  • - Great Britain (Obsolete)
  • ß - South Sudan (Not available)
  • - India and Indiana (subdomain of .us)
  • & - Virgin Islands and Virginia (subdomain of .us)
  • - Florida (subdomain of .us)
  • - New Mexico (subdomain of .us)
  • - Nevada (subdomain of .us)
  • - As part of .ovh

If you can find any more, please stick a comment in the box below.

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4 thoughts on “Domain hacks with unusual Unicode characters”

    1. nik says:

      If people do end up in the vi domain , remember you can leave by pressing the esc key a couple of times ( just in case ) then type :q!

  1. Hendrik says:

    Unfortunatly ℹ️ seems to work as “i”. Would be neat if it could be usefd as full .info


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