Domain hacks with unusual Unicode characters

Unicode contains a range of symbols which don't get much use. For example, there are separate symbols for TradeMark - โ„ข, Service Mark - โ„ , and Prescriptions - โ„ž.

Nestling among the "Letterlike Symbols" are two curious entries. Both of these are single characters:

What's interesting is both .tel and .no are Top-Level-Domains (TLD) on the Domain Name System (DNS).

So my contact site - - can be written as - https://edent.โ„ก/

And the Norwegian domain name registry NORID can be accessed at https://www.norid.โ„–/

Copy and paste those links - they work in any browser!

Is this limited to TLDs?

No! This works ANYWHERE in a domain name. Copy and paste these examples:

  • Script https://โ„ฐ๐’ณ๐’œโ„ณ๐“Ÿโ„’โ„ฐ.๐’ž๐“žโ„ณ/
  • Math Bold https://๐ž๐ฑ๐š๐ฆ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐ž.๐œ๐จ๐ฆ/
  • Fraktur https://๐–Š๐–๐–†๐–’๐–•๐–‘๐–Š.๐–ˆ๐–”๐–’/
  • Math bold italic https://๐’†๐’™๐’‚๐’Ž๐’‘๐’๐’†.๐’„๐’๐’Ž/
  • Math bold script https://๐“ฎ๐”๐“ช๐“ถ๐“น๐“ต๐“ฎ.๐“ฌ๐“ธ๐“ถ/
  • Double struck https://๐•–๐•ฉ๐•’๐•ž๐•ก๐•๐•–.๐•”๐• ๐•ž/
  • Monospace https://๐šŽ๐šก๐šŠ๐š–๐š™๐š•๐šŽ.๐šŒ๐š˜๐š–/
  • Super script https://แต‰หฃแตƒแตแต–หกแต‰.แถœแต’แต/
  • Sub script https://โ‚‘โ‚“โ‚โ‚˜โ‚šโ‚—โ‚‘.cโ‚’โ‚˜/ NB not all characters supported
  • Math sans bold https://๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ฎ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ฒ.๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—บ/
  • Math sans bold italic https://๐™š๐™ญ๐™–๐™ข๐™ฅ๐™ก๐™š.๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข/
  • Math sans italic https://๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ข๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ.๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ/
  • Math Squared https://๐Ÿ„ด๐Ÿ…‡๐Ÿ„ฐ๐Ÿ„ผ๐Ÿ„ฟ๐Ÿ„ป๐Ÿ„ด.๐Ÿ„ฒ๐Ÿ„พ๐Ÿ„ผ/ NB the dot must not be squared
  • Circled https://โ“”โ“งโ“โ“œโ“Ÿโ“›โ“”.โ“’โ“žโ“œ/ NB the dot must not be circled

There are a whole bunch more miscellaneous characters you can use:

How does this work?

Magic! Which is to say, I think it is the browser doing the conversion. DNS Servers don't successfully reply to queries about .โ„ก domains.

The browser sees the .โ„ก and then follows the IDNA2008 process listed in RFC5895 to normalise it:

map characters to the "Simple_Lowercase_Mapping" property (the fourteenth column) in <>, if any.

The โ„ก entry is:

2121;TELEPHONE SIGN;So;0;ON;<compat> 0054 0045 004C;;;;N;T E L SYMBOL;;;;

U+0054 is T, U+0045 is E, U+004C is L.

You can test this in Python using:

python -c 'import sys;print sys.argv[1].decode("utf-8").encode("idna")' "โ„ก"

Does this work?

Yes! I asked people on Twitter whether they could access my website using a .โ„ก - and it appeared to work on every modern browser and operating system.

It even works on command line tools like wget and curl.

It does fail in some circumstances:

What are the limitations?

Two main ones:

  • Sites like Twitter and Facebook don't recognise it as a valid URl and refuse to auto link it.
  • Some command line tools like dig and host don't understand it
dig edent.โ„ก

; <<>> DiG 9.10.6 <<>> edent.โ„ก
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NXDOMAIN, id: 55282

Is this useful?

Obviously yes. This may be the most important discovery of the decade. You get cool looking URls and get to save a couple of characters on specific domains, at the minor expense of working inconsistently.

It could also be used for evading URl filters.

Every modern browser supports these "fancy" domain names - but most websites won't automatically link to them. So sharing on Facebook doesn't work.

Where can it be used?

Here are the single characters which can be normalised down to a valid TLD. They're mostly country codes, but there are a few interesting exceptions:

  • ใ• - US Military
  • โ„ก - .tel registry
  • โ„– - Norway
  • ใณ - Australia
  • ใท - Dominica
  • ใŽ€ - Panama
  • ใŽ - Namibia
  • ใŽƒ - Morocco
  • ใŽŠ - French Polynesia
  • ใŽ‹ - Norfolk Island
  • ใŽ - Kyrgyzstan
  • ใŽ– - Mali
  • ใŽ™ - Federated States of Micronesia
  • ๏ฌ - Finland
  • ใŽœ - Myanmar
  • ใŽ - Cameroon
  • ใŽž & ใŽ - Comoros
  • ใŽฐ - Palestine
  • ใŽณ - Montserrat
  • ใŽท & ใŽน - Republic of Maldives.
  • ใŽบ - Palau
  • ใŽฝ & ใŽฟ - Malawi
  • ใ„ - Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • ใ… - Democratic Republic of Congo
  • ใ‰ - Guyana
  • ใ— - Philippines
  • ใ˜ - Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • ใš - Puerto Rico
  • ใ› - Suriname
  • ใœ - El Salvador
  • โ„  - San Marino
  • โ„ข - Turkmenistan
  • ๏ฌ† & ๏ฌ… - Sรฃo Tomรฉ and Prรญncipe
  • ใŽ‡ - Great Britain (Obsolete)
  • รŸ - South Sudan (Not available)
  • ใŒ - India and Indiana (subdomain of .us)
  • โ…ฅ & โ…ต - Virgin Islands and Virginia (subdomain of .us)
  • ๏ฌ‚ - Florida (subdomain of .us)
  • ใŽš - New Mexico (subdomain of .us)
  • ใŽต - Nevada (subdomain of .us)
  • ใต - As part of .ovh

If you can find any more, please stick a comment in the box below.

You can always reach this blog post at:

https://๐Ÿ…‚๐–๐คโ‚›แต–๐’“.โ“œ๐• ๐’ƒ๐“ฒ/๐Ÿ††๐Ÿ†ƒ๐Ÿ…ต/

4 thoughts on “Domain hacks with unusual Unicode characters

    1. nik says:

      If people do end up in the vi domain , remember you can leave by pressing the esc key a couple of times ( just in case ) then type :q!

  1. Hendrik says:

    Unfortunatly โ„น๏ธ seems to work as โ€œiโ€. Would be neat if it could be usefd as full .info

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