The absolute horror of WiFi light switches

I've just got a WiFi light switch.

As I've explained previously, swapping out all my existing light bulbs with Smart Bulbs would be hugely expensive and has the disadvantage of not working when the switches are off at the wall.

A WiFi light switch (theoretically) allows me to control the lights from my phone - and anyone else to use the physical buttons on the wall. That helps avoid this scenario:

WiFi built into the switch means I don't need to use a hub to control my devices - I can connect directly to them and not have to worry about hardware incompatibilities.

The UK has a unique way of wiring houses which doesn't lend itself well to automated control. The switches which work in the USA and EU, simply won't work in a UK set up. This makes switches rare and expensive.

I've gone for the Lanbon WiFi Light Switch - £50 on Amazon - or around £35 direct from China. For more technical information (although not much) take a look at the L5-HSGT1's product page.

What's In The Box

The switch itself is pretty good looking:
Lanbon Wifi Light Switch Front-

The back is slightly weird - this is obviously a fairly generic design which can be re-purposed for multiway switches.
Lanbon Wifi Light Switch Back-

As for the rest of the kit...
Lanbon Wifi Light Switch Screws-

Yup! A pair of mounting screws - that's it! No fitting instructions, no glossy leaflet, nothing! Oh well, how hard can this thing be to install...

Wiring In

Working with electricity is dangerous. Remember to switch off the power to your lights at your consumer unit. If in doubt, get a qualified electrician to help. I followed this guide to replacing UK light switches.

Wiring the switch is trivial - as long as you can remember which wire is which. There's just one small problem...
Lanbon Wifi Light Switch Depth-
The depth of the pattress box is insufficient to contain the switch! Obviously microchips aren't quite a tiny as necessary yet.

OK, I can try drilling that deeper later - let's power up this baby and see if it works!

Lanbon Wifi Light Switch Wall-

Blinken lights! Touching the light icon provides a satisfying "clunk" somewhere inside the switch, but didn't change the state of the lights. Perhaps it needs to be set up first?

The App

Remember when I said that the package didn't come with any instructions? That wasn't quite true - there are some QR codes on the side:
Lanbon Wifi Light Switch QR Codes-

A quick scan and...
Lanbon Wifi APK-

Hmmm... Do I really want to download an app from China over HTTP? Guess I don't have a choice!

Interestingly, the Lanbon website offers a more recent version of the app to download. This obviously isn't an organisation set up with high-quality "it just works" in mind.

I prepared to install the app - when I was hit by this:

Those are some ridiculously scary permissions! I can understand wanting microphone access (voice control) and maybe GPS (turn lights on when I get home) - but why does this want to send SMS or place calls? Why does it need my contacts and the ability to take photos?

A quick virus scan showed nothing overtly malicious - but I decided to offer up a sacrificial tablet to run the app on. No way am I risking my main device with this software!

The software is of the usual sub-standard quality I've come to expect from cheap electronics. No set-up wizard, just dumped into a complicated screen.
Lanbon Wifi Light Switch App-

Pressing the "User Manual" button gave this monstrosity:
Lanbon Instructions-

I held down the light switch button until the WiFi indicator started flashing. I then connected my tablet to the WiFi (a separate network - I didn't want to risk sticking this on the same network as everything else yet). I clicked the "Auto Search" button and, somehow, the tablet found the switch and set it the network's details. Result!

Lanbon Send Config-

The app presents this rather lazily designed screen. Only the blue icon on the left works as a switch.
Lanbon Button-

Let There Be Light!

And, dear reader, can you guess what happened when I clicked it?

Yup - the square-root of bugger-all!

Under The Covers

Before trying it on another socket, I thought I'd crack it open to see what's going on inside.
Lanbon Wifi Light Switch Under The Cover-
As I suspected, it's a generic unit which can be used for 1-, 2-, or 3-gang switches. No LEDs are soldered on to the spare ports.
Interesting to note a different part number printed on the inside - L5 HSCL LB v16.

Remaining Neutral!

I made a telephone call to Prad - the Amazon seller who supplied me with the switch - he was incredibly helpful but sadly confirmed that the switch requires a neutral wire. Something which had unfortunately been left out of his listing.

It turns out that this lack of neutral wiring is a common problem.

The WiFi Plug Glass has this fairly prominent warning:
Neutral Wiring Warning-fs8

And Vesternet have an excellent page explaining the challenges of fitting smart switches to UK homes.

Short of rewiring parts of my house, it looks like the switch will be useless to me. So back it goes.

Decompiling the Software

Part of the problem with the software is that it is designed to work with a suite of products. It contains references to security cameras, home alarm systems, infrared controllers, fans, curtain controllers, and half-a-dozen other things.

There's no widget support - which is crucial for a lighting app. No one wants to find an app, wait for it to open, find the right light etc. I just want to put a simple toggle on my homescreen - in exactly the same way Lifx does.

As far as I can tell, there's nothing malicious in the software - it's just poorly constructed.

Of course, with Android Lollipop's new permission model, I can deny the app access to anything that I'm uncomfortable with. During my brief use of the app it didn't ask for anything other than WiFi access.


As I didn't get the switches working, I didn't dive too deeply into the API. I did spot this curious activity though.

When the light switch wasn't connected to the WiFi, the app assumes that it is on a different network to the switch and tries to communicate over a cloud service.

Lanbon Hong Kong Server-

That IP is hard-coded into the app.

whois An unknown server in Hong Kong! The venerable nmap reckons the server is running Microsoft Windows Vista Home Premium SP1, Windows 7, or Windows Server 2008. Ok...

Right, it's communicating on port 80 - but let's see what incredibly secure authentication it is performing...

Lanbon UDP Packet-

Hmmm... Some of those numbers look familiar...
Lanbon Wifi Light Switch ID-

Ah. So it sends a packet with the light switch's ID number in it. That appears to be all. I assume that the switch makes a similar persistent connection to that IP address so it can listen out for instructions. I was too scared to port scan the light switch.

I'm guessing, with a small amount of effort, you could toggle strangers' lights to your heart's content.


It looks like I'm going to have to go for the hub and spoke model of smart switches. That is, a light switch which trickles enough electricity to power an RF receiver while keeping the lights off - controlled by a WiFi connected hub.

Hopefully one which is more secure than this!


56 thoughts on “The absolute horror of WiFi light switches

  1. I used to be a electrician in a forma life but now a software engineer but you will find that the earth is common with the neutral so for your electronics to work you can connect the earth to the neutral you should find that this will work. So just take a wire from your earth connection to the neutral in the unit (

      1. Nope, where should there be any current leaking? The housing is made of plastic. The RCD just triggers, when not all current that flows out on mains is returned on neutral. That happens only if something has a direct earth-connection. Don't see that.

        1. Wrong, all an rcd can detect is an imbalance in current in the line and neutral conductors leaving the rcd. The cpc (earth) bypasses the rcd and any curent running down it will cause an imbalnce and trip the rcd.

      2. Terrance, totally dumb question. I used jadx to decompile the apk. But couldnt figure out the server information details.

        Please can you help me to see where the server information is located.

        Will be ever grateful

    1. My dad IS sparky, i did this job myself but i didn’t turn the power back on until my dad signed it off (and i’ve worked with him on and off for 25 Years). DO NOT use your earth as a neutral. Fire, fire burning, fire burning and oh.. more fire!!

      if you want to run a neutral, make sure your system is wired for a ring circuit on the lights, and then run a new neutral from your ceiling rose (or better yet, replace the entire run to the ceiling rose with a fresh run of 3-core 1 mm flex).

      or even better, and by the safest – get a sparky in to do it for you. If the lighting wiring is not set to have a neutral wire, then it’s not a like-for like swap and you shouldn’t be doing this unless you’re qualified AND have part P for domestic installations.

      please play it safe and do this properly

  2. Nice write up. Is there anything you didn't like about Hub and Spoke?

    If it's the power consumption, I think the enOcean kit generates it's own power, or something 🙂

    We make the apps for the Energenie MiHome range, so I get to play with their kit in the office quite a lot! It's a relatively young product but is made for the UK market and works well. Find them on Vesternet and Amazon. There's a Rasberry Pi module for tinkerers too. It's a Wi-Fi hub and spoke setup. There is a light switch too, which I haven't tried yet but someone in the office probably has.

    1. It is mostly the worry about getting stuck with incompatible kit. Look at what happened with the Hue light debacle a few months ago.

  3. May I ask the reasons why you would like to wifi-your-switches? any practical reason?

    I really want to do something similar with my home, but I can't find a good enough reason to actually tinker with this stuff. Motion sensors light bulbs in cupboards and the Hive thermostat are the useful automation things I could come up with. Everything else - I struggle for reasons.

    1. Remote controlling switches is very useful for people with mobility issues. It also allows them to be used when away from home. As well as being able to set automated schedules.

  4. "Draw over other apps" -permission allows it pretty much steal anything on your UI, including things you type on the keyboard (read: passwords). On top of that an anonymous server in Hong Kong... uh oh...

  5. That's a fair point. At home I installed Z-Wave stuff 4 years ago, with Micasa Vera. It's fairly future proof but the problem is the hub software is like something written in the 90's. And SmartThings and Apple HomeKit could in theory be a fairly good interop point with nice app user experience, if more manufacturers supported it.

  6. If the RCD is correctly wired then current going from active to earth will trip it. The earth-nuetral link *should* (don't assume) be on the opposite side of the RCD to your house wiring.

    Disclaimer: I don't live in the UK nor am I an electrician, but it would be stupid to wire the earth-nuetral link on the same side of the RCD as your house wiring. It would not be able to trip if you were touching something earthed and something active simultaneously.

    I do not recommend using your earth wire as a return path for current.

    1. Veyrdite is correct, mark has clearly lost his mind.
      Wiring a circuit with potential to earth is dangerous and against Part P of the Building Regulations here in the UK.

  7. Informative article. I think I will stick to RF operated switches. Can Switch these from my phone and from all over the world as well with a small hub that has bluetooth and internet connection.

  8. Totally agree with Veyrdite on the neutral/earth issue. And yes the RCD will trip as there is current going from live to earth instead of live to neutral

  9. Thank goodness Mark is not still an electrician. Returning power on the earth wire is a potential death trap. If that earth wire ever becomes broken along its path to the neutral the rest will be drawn up to mains voltage and anything else "earthed" on it is now live.

  10. If you've not already sent it back, any way of measuring how many watts that switch is drawing when idle? One of my issues with wi-fi light switches is all the extra, unnecessary, power consumption. Perhaps some of the better ones have a low power state, but…

    For users with mobility issues, wouldn't it be simpler to have a second switch installed elsewhere in the room so they could toggle from one or the other (e.g. like bedside switches in hotels?)

    I wonder if there's a risk of obsolescence too; does these switches use a recent wifi protocol?; can you apply software updates to the switch?; in the event of a power cut, how long until the switch "boots up" / does it remember it's previous state? There's no LED, correct? So how do you know for sure if the bulb has blown? Never mind what if the Internet and/or the Hong Kong Windows server is down / DDOsed etc….

    So, um, not for me. (You know can still get those timers you plug in if you want the lights to come on/off when you're not at home?)

    1. Some good questions - I've sent the switch back, but I'll answer what I can.

      Didn't read what the idle power draw was. But they didn't get warm and they only have to run a relay, LED, and 2.4GHz module.

      The mobility thing is interesting. People - even those with restrictions - tend to move around. Having two switches isn't as convenient as a switch you carry with you. It's also quite expensive to run switches everywhere.

      Boot-up seemed fairly instant. If you've ever tried LIFX bulbs they remember state and connect to WiFi within seconds. There was an LED on the switch, and the sound of the relay clicking would probably alert you if there was a dead bulb. The switches still work as physical buttons even if your WiFi network goes down - so no worries on that front.

      As you correctly identify - having a DDoS take out the server managing your switches would be unfortunate!

      I'd get a timer, but like most people I work irregular hours.

      1. Thanks (sorry – had I looked at your photos properly I could have answered some of my own questions.) Hopefully in a few years things will be better – right now I feel as though whatever option I might choose for lighting/heating etc. will probably need to be replaced.

  11. Sheesh. Matches my own experiences trying to find a reasonably priced wifi switch. I have decided to roll my own based on ESP2866s and Raspberry Pi server.

  12. Hi Terence

    Great write up! I have been doing some mock testing with Wifi Light Switches here in Mumbai. In India, all homes have a neutral wire and I haven't faced any problems in using these switches. The new iOS app by Lanbon is not very great but still an improvement over the last one.
    Lanbon seems to be the only company making direct Wifi controlled switches. Rest all are dependant on an additional host / hub / controller. I wanted to know if you can provide some insight to obtain the Source Code / API from their app as I was working on a project to make a common app for lights & security (I have managed to integrate a camera, wifi door bell & sensors from different makes so far into my app).
    Any help shall be appreciated. Thanks in advance.

    1. Hi Gaurav,
      Firstly - do be careful with these switches. They create a permanent connection from your network to a Chinese IP address. You need to isolate the network - if hackers crack Lanbon then they have a direct connection into your network.
      If Lanbon go bankrupt or stop supporting these switches, you may not be able to control them.
      I suggest asking Lanbon for the API details. If they won't provide them, you can try decompiling the APK and see if that helps.
      Best of luck.

    2. Copy right............ I told you this product was R&D 8 years ago......We hope all people can respect the designers.

      Service can setup everywhere. First condition , The buyer request OEM the product. Others, we can discuss......

  13. Hi Terrence, great write up.

    I'm currently developing a two wire wifi enabled smart switch that can connect to your wifi router or to a home automation gateway using the Enocean 868mhz protocol which I'm hoping to launch on Kickstarter towards the end of summer.

    The switch can dim CFL & LED retrofit bulbs and I'm designing it specifically for the uk market.

    Any thoughts to help my product development?

    1. Sounds really interesting. Made sure it's suitable for shallow patresses - that is, don't make people drill extra holes. Happy to beta test it 🙂

    2. Hi Neil,
      You sound like someone who might be able to help and maybe I can offer a few suggestions for switch design. I've been experimenting with various models of remote operated switches, including Home Easy, Varilight, Broadlink and not to mention various Chinese devices from Amazon.The main gripes I have with pretty much all of the designs are:
      1. Incompatibility with existing switches on 2 way and intermediate switched circuits.
      2. Often require a neutral wire at the switch
      3. Led lamp incompatibility
      4. Non reporting of status
      5. Remember previous state
      I've been looking at designing a switch which uses a mechanical latching relay rather than either solid state switching or single acting magnetic relays. By utilising a double pole double throw latching relay, the contacts can be used for single way, two way or intermediate switching and you would only need to replace one switch in a circuit, no matter how many intermediates were fitted as the latching relay behaves exactly like the physical switch contacts of a conventional light switch.
      The wifi receivers I would presume use such little power they could draw from the series connection with the light or lamp and for the relatively higher momentary current draw during relay toggling, a capacitor should store enough energy to avoid the light from flickering on excessively.
      I have some plug-in wifi switches which I bought at Aldi (Silvercrest) several years back and these switches report status via the phone App. I was looking to see if I could utilise the circuitry from these to drive the relay but haven't measured the quiescent current draw yet so unsure if they will run on just a switched live without neutral.
      If you are in the game of the software end to control, I'd be interested for some contact and possible collaboration.

  14. Dear Terence

    Because This product was passed CB certificate, so that the product must need the neutral wire to connect.

    We hope can production without neutral wire intelligent switching products. But Smart switch is electronic product , If the electronic product without neutral wire is very danger.

    Lanbon Hong Kong Distributor


    1. I have had these switches in my house for a year lucky enough to have the 3 wires. Have them installed in all rooms, how ever some have started flashing not on the WiFi but the small bulb on the switch it's driving me nuts as I can seem to get it to stop. It works fine but any ideas on how to put it back to constant.

  15. I am going to be re-wiring our house as part of a refurb. Could I increase my options if I were to wire the lighting circuits with 3 core and if so, could I use European wifi switches or would that go against any of the current regs?

  16. Hi Terence,

    I was actually looking at purchasing a Lanbon wifi light switch but having read your review scares me.

    Im not a computer wizard here so apologies if my question sounds dumb. My question is, if you have installed the apps and deleted it, would it break your network connection to a Chinese IP address?

    Thanks in advance.

    1. It would not break it, no. The lightswitch itself is connected to your home WiFi - it makes its own connection to China.

  17. I see that Vesternet says that a dimmer WOULD work in a UK house without a neutral wire at the switch. Although not as safe, why wouldn't a homeowner simply wire up such a dimmer circuit for their lights? This is assuming the bulbs are dimmable. I also assume it would mean you'd want to turn off the lighting ring main at the RCD before any serious work on the bulbs, as you might not be able to rely on full isolation at the light switch, although I guess removing the bulb would simply open the circuit, and the switch could perhaps fail open as a default/safety measure.

  18. Haven't you found the details info send from app to switch ? I am developing a raspberry pi 3 bridge. Could you help me with your experience? Thanks great post

  19. That IP address pointing to a Vista box in china would really concern's obviously on a static IP as any hardcoding would cause real issues if the address changed..

    What the hell are they doing with that kit?!! serial numbers for now but what else could it send/receive under different circumstances?..

    Great way to run a DDOS network - tons of traffic running off light switches across the globe (!!)

  20. You probably just saved me a lot of money. I never even thought about the limitations of switched-live light switches when it came to Wi-Fi. I have mobility issues that will probably just get worse with time & thought individual Wi-Fi switches would be advantageous over a hub & spoke model when using portable devices & Amazon Echo. RF dimmers definitely seem to be the way to go as they will work with switched-live &, hopefully, won't connect to dodgy unknown servers!

    I'm so glad your blog appeared on my Google search this morning!

  21. Hello everyone,

    I agree with gothboyuk,

    RF is what im trying to get to as well. I have Broadlink RM Pro which controls all my RF plugs andTVs, ACs.
    I now want to automate my light switches and i am looking for the best option out there which would be compatible with my current automation.
    Don't know though. IR/RF is old. Automating them is the cheapest solution currently, and the only one that can control my TVs and ACs but light switches are different.

    I think I would prefer to install wifi light switches and run a secondary smart home solution for those and any other wifi controlled devices, rather than trying to implement everything through RF.
    What im thinking of trying is this wifi switch

    I mostly have 3 Gang - 2 Way switches for my house which makes it even harder to find and replace them with wifi ones.

    Also Broadlink itself has a nice App which does some IFTTT style automation but.
    a) dont know how well encrypted it is.
    b) will it ever be compatible with current smart home kids like Samsung Smart Things?

    Need everybody's thoughts on the matter

  22. I've recently been down this road. When looking for a way to automate my lights, at first I was going to go for a sonoff touch WiFi switch. I like sonoff because their stuff is well made and easily hackable which enables you to flash your own firmware to add mqtt support etc

    Luckily before I placed the order I noticed that the sonoff touch also requires a neutral at the switch so that was a non-starter for me in the UK. I then actually did order one of the sonoff basic power switches, wired this into the lighting circuit above one of my lights and pushed it into the void between the joists above. This solution really did work well so I planned to roll this out everywhere..but then found that it simply wasn't possible with some of my lights in some rooms due to lack of space in the void above the light fitting.

    So this led me to start looking at switches again and in the end I ordered a bunch of Byron / Home Easy HE107 and HE108 433mhz light switches on ebay because I knew there was a good chance I'd be able to reverse engineer the 433 signal / home easy protocol. This plan worked too, they look ok and I've now got them controllable via WiFi with an ESP8266 433mhz bridging widget that I built. Please note that the Home Easy stuff is now discontinued / no longer being made but there's still plenty of it around to be had.

    It's all a bit of a faff to be honest and something tells me that it's only a matter of time before something like the sonoff touch becomes available without requiring a neutral wire..perhaps it already exists? If not it seems as though it should be possible to create a device like this because if Byron can build a 433mhz controllable switch with no neutral wire then I see no reason why some other manufacturer can't build a WiFi controllable switch with no neutral wire.

  23. I'm confused about how it does anything at all without the neutral and curious about how you wired it.

  24. The HomeEasy switches I picked up are 433mhz RF remote control dimmer switches. They come with these instructions in the packaging which shows how to wire them up:

    They have a little blue LED on the "touch" part of the switch which is on when the light is off and is off when the light is on.

    I can't tell you how the dimmer switch part works internally or how the 433mhz transmitter circuit has been built but I'm guessing it must work like other regular dimmer switches where there's some circuitry to chop up the AC into a DC voltage to keep the 433mhz transmitter always on and to power the LED. If I had to guess it's probably something like this:

    To be completely honest imo these are not the optimal solution because switching them on and off remotely via 433mhz is basically a "fire and forget" operation. This means that if they're switched at the wall, the remote system has no knowledge about that manual switch action because these type of switches only contain an RF receiver; there's no RF transmitter or anything else that might be able to notify of state change.

    I've not used any other similar RF switches like the many available on aliexpress / bangood but I assume these would work the same way. I guess the advantage with the HomeEasy stuff is that it was once-upon-a-time manufactured in the UK and these HE switches really do fit UK type switch boxes (25mm deep).

    For me, in the absence of anything else, this is a semi decent solution for now but I'd much prefer something like a hackable WiFi sonoff switch.

  25. Terrence, Fibaro z-wave dimmers work with just a live connection. I had one on my Vera which has now been changed to a Domoticz and working great. Another plus is it's the first dimmer I have had that correctly dims the led bulbs I have. Not cheap (£45) but excellent quality and operation. I have also got a Sonoff Touch light switch (£14) as well as other Sonoff gear but it does need a neutral connection. The sonoff gear can all be re flashed to work with mqtt or http automation systems cutting out the Chinese connection completely.

    1. Hi , hope you are well... can you tell me more about ---> "The sonoff gear can all be re flashed to work with mqtt or http automation systems cutting out the Chinese connection completely."

      Many Thanks

      1. Hi Rolandas,
        The sonoff wifi devices can be flashed with new firmware (they are just ESP wifi chips). I used the Tasmota firmware as was relatively easy to get going and supported MQTT to integrate with Home Assistant.
        I installed a few sonoff relay devices behind standard light switches so can operate lights as normal but also remotely or automatically (this does require some mods to the units but plenty of help available on youtube). Limitations are multigang lights as units are too big to go in wall without more DIY
        See here for all the info you need.

        I am is the same state as Joe with a mix of RF433 switches (Livolo) which look nice and work well but are one way (no signal back to say the light is on - and the RF codes are not great).

        My ideal situation would be a wifi version of the livolo switch without call back to China!

        Cheers, Stuart (NZ)

  26. Good thread, I'm also looking at the same for a house we haven't moved into yet but that's another story.
    As for the light switch polling the server, I would imagine that is to allow the user to register at the server in order to control the switch across the web. The way this works is you send an instruction to the server which is polled by the switch. As the conversation between switch and external server is initiated by the switch and therefore inside your routers firewall it can retrieve the instruction, without the polling your router wouldn't allow anything incoming.

  27. Hi Terence,

    We're over a year on and what do you think? I've just installed a WiFi switch in my bedroom, I was lucky that all my house switches were metal and I guess a neutral is required for metal switches. While I am a little bit suspicious about where the data is going, it's fair to say the whole system has been massively improved and I've fallen in love with it. That app on your device looks dreadful to the one that came along with my device, which is surprisingly polished and functional. You have to register an account and I think there is some end-to-end encryption and a lot of it is handled by Amazon WS.

    One thing I did notice is that the data seems to go home to China before coming back. I wonder if this is some sort of permission thing? I wonder if I blocked that IP whether it would still work. Only one way to find out I suppose. I've not spent any time decompiling the software. Rather I've looked into whether the firmware could be replaced with something more usable, and the answer appears to be switching to an open source firmware. Perhaps it is possible to setup a mini server at home that handles all of your requests. The only issue is whether you can integrate that with Google Assistant. For now, I am not too unhappy with it, but of course, the only other issue I can think of, is if the home server dies, the functionality dies. Lucky there's a manual switch eh? 🙂

    1. Hi Joe,
      I'm using LIFX for most bulbs - and WisQo switches for the others. The WisQo work without neutral, which is handy, and also works with Alexa. Mostly! Lots of latency going to China and back it seems.

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