Yet the history of debasement has mostly been state run. That is exactly why, in Charles I’s Statute of Monopolies the one standout monopoly that was allowed to be controlled by the state was coinage, because they already recognised how valuable it was for the state to be able to manipulate its value. I doubt few of the miscreants you quote above managed to debase their currency by the 98% achieved since the era of central banking really got going in 1913.